According to Wikipedia, "A perverse incentive is an incentive that has an unintended and undesirable result which is contrary to the interests of the incentive makers. Perverse incentives are a type of negative unintended consequence."
There is an excellent (but depressing) article
Academic Research in the 21st Century: Maintaining Scientific Integrity in a Climate of Perverse Incentives and Hypercompetition
Edwards Marc A. and Roy Siddhartha
I learnt of the article via a blog post summarising it, Every attempt to manage academia makes it worse.
Incidentally, Edwards is a water quality expert who was influential in exposing the Flint Water crisis.
The article is particularly helpful because it cites a lot of literature concerning the problems. It contains the following provocative table. I also like the emphasis on ethical behaviour and altruism.
It is easy to feel helpless. However, the least action you can take is to stop looking at metrics when reviewing grants, job applicants, and tenure cases. Actually read some of the papers and evaluate the quality of the science. If you don't have the expertise then you should not be making the decision or should seek expert review.